Antiquarian Anabaptist

Apologetics from an Anabaptist perspective

Lollard Conclusions, 1394

1. That when the the Church of England began to go mad after temporalities, like its great stepmother the Roman Church, and churches were authorized to by appropriation in divers places, faith, hope, and charity began to flee from our Church….

2. That our usual priesthood which began in Rome, pretended to be of power more lofty than the angels, is not that priesthood which Christ ordained for his apostles….

3. That the law of continence enjoined on priests, which was first ordained to the prejudice of women, brings sodomy into all the Holy Church, but we excuse ourselves by the Bible because the decree says that we should not mention it, though suspected….

4. That the pretended miracle of the sacrament of bread drives all men but a few to idolatry, because they think that the Body of Christ which is never away from heaven could by power of the priest’s word be enclosed essentially in a little bread which they show the people….

5. That exorcisms and blessings performed over wine, bread, water and oil, salt, wax, and incense, the stones of the altar, and church walls, over clothing, mitre, cross, and pilgrim’s staves, are the genuine performance of necromancy rather than of sacred theology….

6. That king and bishop in one person, prelate and judge in temporal causes, curate and officer in secular office, puts any kingdom beyond good rule…

7. That special prayers for the souls of the dead offered in our Church, preferring one before another in name, are a false foundation of alms, and for that reason all houses of alms in England have been wrongly founded….

8. That pilgrimages, prayers, and offerings made to blind crosses or roods, and to deaf images of wood or stone, are pretty well akin to idolatry and far from alms, and although these be forbidden and imaginary, a book of error to the layfolk, still the customary image of the Trinity is specially abominable….

9. That auricular confession which is said to be so necessary to the salvation of a man, with its pretended power of absolution, exalts the arrogance of priests and gives them opportunity of other secret colloquies which we will not speak of; for both lords and ladies attest that, for fear of their confessors, they dare not speak the truth….

10. That manslaughter in war, or by law of justice for a temporal cause, without spiritual revelation, is expressly contrary to the New Testament, which indeed is the law of grace and full of mercies…

11. That the vow of continence made in our Church by women who are frail and imperfect in nature is the cause of bringing the gravest horrible sins possible to human nature, because, although the killing of abortive children before they are baptized and the destruction of nature by drugs are vile sins, yet connection with themselves or beasts or any creature not having life surpasses them in foulness to such an extent as that they should be punished with the pains of hell.

12. That the abundance of unnecessary arts practised in our realm nourishes much sin in waste, profusion, and disguise….since St. Paul says, “having food and raiment, let us be therewith content,” it seems to us that goldsmiths and armourers and all kinds of arts not necessary for a man, according to the apostle, should be destroyed for the increase of virtue….

– quoted from Peters, Edward, Heresy and Authority in Medieval Europe. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1980

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