Flatlander Faith

Apologetics from an Anabaptist perspective

Tag Archives: Québec

School crisis in Québec

More than 50 congregations of the Church of God in Christ, Mennonite in seven Canadian provinces are operating their own schools. These schools provide the foundational tools to enable their graduates to go on and continue learning whatever they need to make a living and be useful members of society. The schools are recognized as legal by their respective provincial governments, even though they do not follow the official curriculum or employ government certified teachers. Congregations of the Church of God in Christ, Mennonite in 37 states of the USA are doing the same.

It has been in the news this week that this will not fly in the province of Québec. The school operated by the congregation at Roxton Falls, Québec is considered an illegal school and will be forced to close. Many attempts have been made to find an accommodation with the government; at times it has seemed that a way had been found, but the news this week appears to be final.

This leaves our brethren in Québec with three options: send their children to public school, home school their children, or leave the province. The families who live there would not consider public school to be an option, so in reality there are only two choices. I’m afraid that some will choose to leave.

Personally, I believe home schooling is the most attractive choice. After all, the education of children is the responsibility of parents, why would we think it essential to bring them all together into one building and have someone else teach them?

The forces behind the public education system have done their work well. When we look at the origins of public schools in North America, we read that the proponents openly stated their intention to remove children from their parents’ influence and to counter the religious influence of the home. They planted the thought that children needed to be together with children their own age in order to learn how to behave. That thought is still believed by many who want their children to be educated in a Christian setting. Why don’t we stop and think a bit? If there was any truth to the statement, then the children in the largest schools should be the best behaved children in our society. Has it worked out that way?

I hear people saying that home-schooled children aren’t learning much. That may be true in a few instances, there are variations in every educational setting. Yet extensive studies have been done of home-schooled children in both Canada and the USA and the results show that on average at every age level home-schooled children are far ahead of their peers in public schools.

Most parents who home school give two reasons for their choice: they want their children to learn more than what the public schools are achieving; and they don’t want their children to learn the attitudes and behaviour problems that are rampant in the public schools.

My observation of home-schooled children is that they will play in an uninhibited way with other children their own age, and are able to visit with children and adults of any age level. They are far more articulate than most children who learn in a classroom setting. Again there are differences from home to home, and child to child, this is normal, but on balance home schooled children learn more social skills than children learning in a classroom.

Many parents fear to even try home schooling, imagining that the work load would be too much. While home schooling families need to have a schedule and maintain order, they do not have to duplicate a classroom setting. And the children need to take up a good share of the household chores. This is a bonus.

We had supper in the home of a home schooling family who have five boys and two girls, the girls being the youngest. After supper the boys started playing around. After a few minutes, the father said, “Boys, what is it that you do every day when we don’t have company?” That was all he needed to say, the boys came and cleared off the table, put things away, washed the dishes, and did it cheerfully.

Consider all the time and money that can be saved by home schooling: no need for school buses or vans, no time wasted travelling to and from school, no school lunches to prepare ahead of time (the children should help prepare meals at home), no special clothes just for school, no need to try and pry out of your children just what happened at school today.

The studies of home schooled children also show that the education level of the parents doesn’t matter. Parents got better results than the public schools, whether they had a Grade VIII education or a Bachelor of Education degree. And yes, there are parents with a B. Ed. degree who do not trust their children to the public education system.

Parents don’t need to be experts in the subjects their children study. There are excellent textbooks available for home schooling families that will guide the children into learning on their own with some parental supervision. Universities now are competing for children who have been home-schooled through to a high school level. They have found that these students have learned how to learn and do far better in university.

My perspective on all this is that our independent congregational schools do serve a useful purpose. Not every family dynamic is compatible with home schooling; for instance there are single parent households and households where the parents are not united in the faith. However, we should not be looking for direction to the public school system. They have nothing useful to offer as far as textbooks and teaching methods are concerned. We will find more helpful examples in the textbooks and teaching methods used by home schoolers.

Clinging to the rock

The majestic elm tree was a landmark along the Autoroute des Cantons de l’Est south of Montréal. It stood straight and tall on the east side of the highway, near St-Jean-sur-Richelieu, but it looked the same in summer as in winter. Like most North American elms it had fallen victim to Dutch Elm disease and had been dead for many years.

It must have been eighteen years ago that a Montréal artist decided to do something about it. He collected as many discarded green plastic buckets as he could and cut out hundreds of elm leaves, then rented a crane with a man basket and fastened the leaves to the branches of the elm tree. It did improve the appearance of the tree; the leaves may not have been exactly the right colour, but they caught your eye as you sped by on the freeway.

Two months later, a strong wind came up in the night and the tree fell. Perhaps the leaves hastened the fall by catching the wind, yet we all knew the tree was rotten on the inside by now.

The oldest trees in Canada are the eastern white cedars along the cliffs of the Niagara Escarpment in Ontario. These cedars are neither big nor beautiful, yet they cling to the rocky cliff and have survived extreme weather variations for an astoundingly long time. Many of them have very little bark left due to blasts from wind borne sand and the effects of freezing and thawing, rain, hail and snow, yet show no sign of aging or rot and produce seeds every year. Some of them are more than one thousand years old, still healthy and drawing nutrients and moisture from little crevices in the rock. The oldest is estimated to be almost 1900 years old.

Which tree does our Christian life resemble? Are we trying to hold up an artificial resemblance of Christian life for others to see, with no spiritual life inside? Or are we battered and worn yet still surviving the battles, clinging to the rock and sustained by roots growing deep into the living water Christ provides?

Not as easy as it looked

There is a little Christian bookstore in Sherbrooke, Québec that we used to visit when we lived in that province. I would buy a book or two and we would visit with Priscille, the lady who managed the store. I’m not sure if she worked there full time,  occasionally there would be someone else there.

Priscille was a wife and mother, also a writer. I have a book entitled Un chant nouveau (A New Song) containing mostly short songs and choruses for use in worship and Sunday School. Priscille wrote the words for six of the songs.

She also wrote verses for a greeting card company. There was a greeting card company in Ontario that also had a line of French language cards with spiritual messages and she wrote for them. Her teenage boy would sometimes remark that this was such easy money – Mom would write out a number of short messages, send them away and in a few weeks a cheque would come back. It seemed to him that Mom was taking money for not doing much at all.

There came a snow day when school was cancelled and there wasn’t much to do at home. Priscille gave him a pad of paper and suggested he try his hand at writing greeting card verses, promising that if he could come up with something good she would send it to the company so he could share in the easy money.

He eagerly sat down at the table and began to write; his mother went about her work. He wrote a few lines, crossed them out, wrote some more, crossed it out and wrote again. He tore off that sheet of paper, crumpled it up. threw it in the waste basket and started over.

Sheet after sheet went into the garbage and finally a plaintive wail was heard: “Mom, this is hard work!

Music to his mother’s ears, no doubt. Evidently though, the young lad did have a feeling for what good writing should be. One would hope that he didn’t give up on writing.

Discovery learning

The Province of Alberta recently announced a complete transformation of their teaching methods. The new model is based on the wonderfully naive expectation that a classroom of 30 children of the same age will learn much better if the teacher is relegated to the background and not allowed to teach.

Where does this dewy-eyed credulity come from? Certainly not from any investigation into how such a classroom actually behaves. One has to wonder if the educational “experts”, having succeeded in excluding parents from the picture, are not finding too many teachers who actually want to teach some realistic values to their pupils.

Study after study has shown that children learn best from direct instruction, that the modern alternatives have resulted in a continuous decline in actual learning. The province of Quebec, for example, has resisted the move towards newer methods of teaching math. In Quebec they still teach the basics, like memorizing the times tables. The result is that Quebec students place 6th on the OECD comparison of learning outcomes, on a par with Japan.

Students from the rest of Canada are already far behind, discovery learning will put them even further behind. An article published in Educational Psychologist a few years ago, based on more than 100 studies over 50 years, stated that none of the research supported discovery learning.

Pardon my cynicism, but to me this just looks like the latest attempt of the “progressives” to seize control of our children’s minds and train them in their collectivist philosophy. I applaud all those parents who have removed their children from the abyss of public education. All the studies show that children who get their learning at home or in small private schools are far ahead in both learning and in responsible conduct.

 

 

Why parents need to be involved in their child’s education

Governor Jeb Bush of Florida was in Toronto at the end of October to speak on the educational reforms that have moved Florida schools from the bottom tier of educational achievement to near the top.  He spoke to the Economic Club of Canada at the Royal York Hotel, the talk was well-publicized and co-sponsored by the Society for Quality Education, yet the audience appears to have been remarkably free of any representatives of the Ontario educational system.

Perhaps they should have been paying more attention.  The OECD International Student Assessment statistics show that Canada is slipping one place per year in Math proficiency.  We are now down to 13th place, from 7th in 2006.  Even this ranking is higher than it would be if it only included the English-speaking provinces.  In Québec they still teach math by traditional methods and obtain the highest scores in the country.

In my humble opinion, the declining test scores are collateral damage from the all-out efforts of the educational bureaucracy to convince the public that education is a highly sophisticated process that is beyond the ability of mere parents.  It’s not that they don’t want to teach children to read and write, and to add and subtract, multiply and divide, but they want to do it in such a way that parents have no idea how they did it.

This does not appear to be an attainable objective.  At the same time that the public education system shows constantly declining results, studies in Canada and the USA show that home-schooling parents are obtaining results that are far superior.  Not only do those studies show that children do far better when taught by their parents, the results are the same for parents who never finished high school and those with a university degree or two.

The gurus of educational mystification react to those results either by ignoring them, or by suggesting that some kind of sinister brainwashing is taking place in these unsupervised home school settings.  Many of the rest of us believe the brainwashing is taking place in the public system and is the fundamental reason for trying to keep parents from understanding what is going on in school.  Blessed indeed is the mother whose daughter comes home from school and says, “Mom, the teacher said we shouldn’t talk to our parents about this because you probably won’t understand, but I really want to know what you think.”

For those of us who have opted out of the public system in favour of independent Christian schools, I fear that some of the attitudes of the public system still linger with us.  It is not the school’s responsibility to teach social skills to our children.  If my child is being a disruptive influence in school, it is my responsibility to apply corrective measures.  We should take an interest in what our children are learning and how they are learning it.  We should not be a disruptive influence on the school, either, but we really can help our children with concepts that they just don’t seem able to catch in class.  We should take an interest in the curriculum, too.  Our independent schools are apt to get the same mediocre results as the public system if they use the same curriculum materials.  There is a wealth of curriculum materials used by home schooling parents that are much more effective.

Back to Governor Bush.  Education reform was the main plank of his platform when he first ran for governor and once elected he began to implement his program.  All the schools in Florida were ranked by results as A, B, C, D or F.  The schools ranked A were given an extra $100 per student to spend as they wished.  Most schools used it for teacher bonuses.  Students in schools ranked F were given vouchers to switch to another school, either public or private.  Social promotion was banned after Grade 3.  Bush believes the first three years are spent learning to read and the following years in reading to learn.  It makes no senses at all to pass an illiterate child into Grade 4 and condemn him or her to a lifetime of ignorance.  The emphasis of his program was on providing measures of accountability and rewarding schools and teachers that were achieving excellence.

Other school systems in the USA are taking notice and emulating Florida’s measures, New York City, for example.  I’ve not heard of any Canadian public school authorities showing any inclination to follow suit.  Good education is not mysterious or expensive.  Our grandparents knew how to do it 100 years ago and those methods have not become outmoded, despite the pretensions of the educational bureaucracy.

As a final note, the Society for Quality Education offers free remedial programs for reading and math.  If your child is not doing well in these basic subjects, try these programs.  You will find them at: www.teachyourchildtoread.ca
www.teachyourchildmath.ca

Canada Day trivia

Who was the first Prime Minister of Canada?  This is a tricky question.  The first Prime Minister after Confederation in 1867 was John A McDonald.  But the Act of Union of 1841 merged Upper Canada and Lower Canada (now Ontario and Québec) into the United Province of Canada.  The first elected leader of the United Province of Canada was Robert Baldwin, with Louis Lafontaine as his lieutenant.

The union of Upper and Lower Canada was the results of the rebellions in 1837.  The one in Upper Canada was led by William Lyon Mackenzie and the one in Lower Canada by Louis Joseph Papineau.  The grievances were the same: a colonial administration that was deaf to the aspirations of the populace.

Confederation in 1867 added the provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island to Canada and established the new nation as entirely self-governing.  The remaining five provinces were added from 1870 to 1949.

Montréal was named the capital of the United Province in 1843.  In 1849 the elected government passed the Rebellion Losses Bill to compensate property owners who had suffered losses during the rebellions.  An angry English-speaking mob torched the legislature.  They thought it was OK to compensate English-speaking property owners, but not those who were French-speaking.

French and English are the official languages of Canada and people anywhere in Canada can deal with the Federal government in either language.  Eight provinces are officially English-speaking, Québec’s official language is French and New Brunswick is the only province that is officially bilingual, providing equal services in both languages.  All the other provinces provide some services in the non official language: especially education.

Fifty years ago the population of the USA was ten times as much as Canada’s.  Now it is only nine times as much: Canada 35 million; USA 315 million.

Québec City was founded in 1608 and is the oldest city in Canada.  The old part of the city is the only walled city north of Mexico.

The original French explorers and settlers (Jacques Cartier, Samuel Champlain, Marc Lescarbot, Pierre Esprit Radisson, Médard Chouart de Groseillères, for example) were Protestants trying to escape religious troubles in France.

Canadians you may not have heard of:

Jonathan Goforth of southwestern Ontario was one of the most active and effective missionaries to China (1888-1935).

William Featherstone of Montréal wrote the words of My Jesus I Love Thee before his seventeenth birthday.

Josiah Henson of Dresden, Ontario, an escaped slave, established an institute to teach agriculture and trades to fellow escaped slaves.  Harriet Beecher Stowe visited him and used the things he told her as the basis for Uncle Tom’s Cabin.

Laura Secord of Queenston, Ontario.  During the war of 1812 she overheard American soldiers talking of their plan to ambush the troops at Beaver Dam.  She walked twenty miles through the bush to warn Lieutenant James FitzGibbon.  Two days later the Americans were ambushed by a party of 400 Indians and the American colonel, with 462 men, surrendered to Lieutenant FitzGibbon and his 30 soldiers.

Charles Saunders, the developer of Marquis wheat.  Red Fife wheat was the main variety grown in eastern Canada, but when the prairies began to open up for farming, Red Fife often froze before it was mature.  Dr. Saunders crossed Red Fife with Hard Red Calcutta and selected plants that were early maturing, high yielding, had stiff straw and whose kernels had the best milling and baking qualities.  Marquis began to be distributed to farmers in 1912 and by 1918 was grown on 20 million acres from southern Nebraska to northern Saskatchewan.  This was the wheat that made the Canadian prairies a bread basket for the world.

Thoughtless generosity

The rain began July 19, 1996 over the semi-mountainous terrain surrounding the Kenogami basin in Québec and continued for three days, dropping enough water to fill the Kenogami reservoir one and a half times.  Unfortunately, it was nearly full to begin with.  Torrents of water flowed over the dam and into the cities of Chicoutimi and La Baie.  Homes and businesses were washed out into the bay, two children died when a mudslide buried them in their downstairs bedroom, 14,000 people were evacuated to the homes of relatives or to temporary shelters.

People across Canada donated food and containers of used clothing and trucking companies delivered them free of charge.  I was in La Baie for a few days and saw the results.  People here are not poor.  There are good paying jobs in the aluminum smelters, forest products plants and the Canadian Forces air base.  Bottled water and food items were welcome and quickly distributed.  But, Oh, the clothing!  It appeared that people had gathered up their worn out clothes and sent them to La Baie.  A theatre was used as a triage centre and the sorting operation provided a diversion from the devastation outside.  I doubt if any of the clothing was ever used in the area, except perhaps as rags.  The crowning moment came when some ladies called my attention to a dozen brand-new ladies shoes they had unearthed from a container — all for the left foot!  Their mates never did show up.  Some kind hearted folks even sent Bibles — English Bibles.  This is a French-speaking area and few people can read English.

The local people were more amused than offended by this strange generosity.  But I began to wonder how much good is really done by our charitable donations.

There are 85,600 registered charities in Canada.  Some lose their charitable status each year because of irregularities, usually because the funds collected were used for personal purposes. Some more sinister operations have been uncovered, such as the financing of terrorist activities in other countries.

The average charity spends 33% of its total income on fund raising activities and another 8% on administration.  Doesn’t it warm your heart to know that 40% of the money you donate to a charity is going to pay the salary of the person who made that annoying phone call requesting the donation?

The Canadian Cancer Society spends large amounts of money advocating for the reduction, or elimination, of pesticide use.  Yet its website states that there is no proven link between pesticide use and cancer.  Do they feel that well publicized anti pesticide advocacy brings in more funds from alarmed citizens?

The Canadian Diabetes Association gets a large part of its income from collecting used clothing and selling it to Value Village (which is a business, not a charitable organization).  At least that clothing remains in Canada.

These charities are doing useful work that probably wouldn’t happen otherwise.  When it comes to international relief organizations there is cause for a lot more skepticism.

In Toronto there is serious competition in gathering used clothing.  Much of it is sold to distributors in third world countries, who resell the clothes below the price of locally made clothes, causing the loss of thousands of jobs.  All the companies putting up used clothing bins in Toronto claim that the proceeds are going to charity, but the amount going to charity is very small.  Drivers picking up used clothing from the bins can make up to $100,000.00 per year.

James Mikwati of Kenya says: “For God’s sake, please stop the aid!”  He says the countries that have received the most aid are the ones in the worst shape.  Economist Dambisa Moyo of Zambia has written a book, “Dead Aid: Why Aid is Not Working and How There’s A Better Way for Africa” in which she argues that long term aid programs undermine African agriculture, business and governments.  One little example is an African maker of mosquito nets that was put out of business because some Hollywood star issued a plea to send mosquito nets to Africa.

In an article in The East African Rasna Warah tells how governments come to depend on food aid and neglect agricultural policy.  This creates an artificial economy based on the distribution of food aid.  Much money flows to government officials to grease the wheels of the distribution system and to local militias to protect the convoys.

Faith-based organizations like World Vision and Compassion are using donors’ money in efficient and effective ways with the least detrimental side effects.

The Church of God in Christ, Mennonite,  to which I belong, does low-profile, small-scale aid projects in thirty countries through Christian Service International and Humanitarian Services International (for countries that will not allow an organization with Christian in its name to operate in their country).  Fund-raising costs: 0.  Administration costs: 1%.  There are thousands of broken down wells all over Africa.  Teams are at work in several countries repairing those wells, and teaching the local people how to maintain them.  There are sanitation projects in rural communities, supplies and equipment is provided to hospitals, eye and harelip surgeries are funded, and so on.  The goal is that these projects will empower the local people, rather than make them dependent on aid.

Thomas Jefferson’s Miscalculation

When the War of 1812 began, the US government assumed that the Canadian colonies to the north would quickly grasp the opportunity to throw off British colonial rule and become part of the USA.  Thomas Jefferson declared that Canada could be acquired simply by marching North.

It probably seemed a logical assumption.  The colonies of Upper Canada (upstream along the St.  Lawrence) and Lower Canada (downstream) were chafing at the British administration and the USA had 16 times as many people as the two colonies combined.

But there were factors that the USA did not reckon with.  The largest ethnic groups in the USA have always been people of English and German descent.  In Canada, the two main ethnic groups are the Scots and the French.  The Scots and the English are not kissing cousins.  The Scots have never graciously accepted English domination and this extended to the idea of domination by people of English descent from the USA.

In addition, a large chunk of the population of Upper Canada (now Ontario) consisted of United Empire Loyalists, people who had left (or been driven out of) the USA during the Revolutionary War because they did not agree with the idea of forcibly overthrowing the established government.  These people were not enthused with the idea of once again coming under US authority.

The population of Lower Canada (now Québec) was largely French-speaking.  They were not thrilled about being ruled by the British, but they did not see that being ruled by the Americans would be an improvement.  At the battle of Chateauguay in October of 1813, 4,000 US invaders were put to flight by a French-Canadian battalion of 460 men, led by Lt. Col. Charles de Salaberry.

The Indian people of Canada were aware of the violence suffered by Indians in US territory and joined the battle to repulse the American invaders.  They were joined by Tecumseh and a contingent of Shawnee warriors from the USA.  Three times in his boyhood, US forces had destroyed the villages where Tecumseh lived, then in 1811 his community of Prophet’s Town, Indiana was burned to the ground.

A “Company of Coloured Men” fought in the battle of Queenston Heights.  It is not hard to imagine that they had no desire to become part of the USA where they stood a good chance of being returned to slavery.

For these and many other reasons, the US invasion of Canada was a failure.  Many Canadians consider the War of 1812 to be the birth of Canada as a nation.  There were short-lived rebellions against colonial authority in both Upper and Lower Canada in 1837.  This led to the granting of responsible government and the union of the two Canada’s in 1841.  In 1867, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island were united with Canada, followed by rapid western expansion and finally the addition of Newfoundland in 1949.

As a nonresistant Christian of Anabaptist-Mennonite persuasion, I am not seeking to glorify war.  I find it worthy of note that wars often have consequences that are very different from the intentions of the party that instigated the war.

The Book that Illuminates

Here is a beautiful illustration of the words of David in Psalm 119:130, “The entrance of they words giveth light.”  The incident occurred sometime in the 1840’s in rural Québec.  It is recorded in Histoire du Protestantisme Français au Canada et aux États-Unis by R.-P. Duclos, first published in 1913.

Zéphirin Patenaude, was travelling the roads in the parish of Saint-D. as a Bible colporteur.  It was February and towards evening he began enquiring for a place to spend the night.  The response was icy at every home and all refused to allow him to spend the night.

Finally, he knocked on a door and only dared ask if he could come in and warm himself by the stove.  The four other men gathered around the stove knew who he was and began to talk about religion.  Mr. Patenaude hesitated to join in, fearing to be put out into the frigid night.  But his conscience would not let him be silent and he found the courage to give his testimony.  As he finished, he dared to ask if one of them could offer him shelter for the night.  One of the men said, “I’m ready to go home, come with me and I’ll give you a place for the night.”

Mr. Patenaude was served a good supper, given a warm room for the night and a hearty breakfast.  He thanked his host for his hospitality and received this response:

“I must tell you why I treated you this way.  Two weeks ago, I had a strikingly vivid dream at two o’clock in the morning.  I dreamed that a man knocked at my door, it opened and he came in.  He took a small book out of his pocket and when he opened it, the whole house was filled with light.  When I saw you come into my neighbour’s house last night, I recognized you as the man I saw in my dream.  That is why I wanted to visit with you and hear what you have to say.”

Lost, Forgotten and Suppressed History – The Huguenot origins of Québec

The first explorers and settlers of New France were Protestants.   This is not something I learned in school; I don’t think it’s being taught even today, the Catholic church having almost succeeded in expunging all mention of Protestants from the collective memory of the Québecois people.

The Reformed Church in France seems to have begun when remnants of the Waldenses and Albigenses converted to Calvinism.  John Calvin (Jean Cauvin) was himself a Frenchman who became the leader of the Reform in Geneva.  Adherents of this faith were known as Huguenots, a name whose origin is still uncertain.  At one point, Huguenots accounted for 15 to 20% of the population of France.  There ensued almost two centuries of conflict, massacres and wars, as the Catholic church tried to eliminate Protestantism in France and the Huguenots fought back.

French Huguenots fleeing persecution dispersed throughout the world.  Breton fishermen had fished on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland for generations and some Huguenots began dreaming of a new homeland across the ocean.

In 1534, Jacques Cartier of St. Malo began the exploration of New France.  It is claimed that Cartier was Catholic, though he came from a Huguenot family and his expedition was financed by Philippe de Chabot, a Huguenot.  The first Huguenot colony was established in 1540 at Cap-Rouge, near present day Québec City, by Jean-François de la Roque, Sieur de Roberval, a Huguenot.  This settlement was abandoned in 1543.

Another short-lived colony was begun on Sable Island in 1598 and another at Tadoussac in 1600.  The first permanent colony was at Port Royal, Nova Scotia in 1604, led by Samuel de Champlain.  His religious affiliation is uncertain, but he later married Hélène Boulé, a Huguenot, his expedition was financed by Pierre de Gua, Sieur des Monts, a Huguenot, and the only clergy on this expedition were Huguenots.

In 1610, Champlain established a second settlement at Québec, again financed by le Sieur des Monts.  One of the settlers, Marc Lescarbot, a Huguenot, is called the first farmer in Canada. Brothers Guillaume and Émery de Caën, Huguenots in France, held a monopoly on the fur trade in New France until 1627.

The Catholic forces of repression in France eventually had their effect in New France.  The fur trade monopoly was transferred to the Company of a Hundred Associates, all Catholics.  Further Huguenot emigration from France was forbidden, Jesuits were sent to New France and life became increasingly difficult for Huguenots in New France.

Some men began to seek the freedom of the woods and rivers, pushing exploration and the fur trade into new frontiers.  They were called coureurs-du-bois and voyageurs.  Many of their names are unknown to us, but two are named in every Canadian history book: Pierre Esprit Radisson and Médard Chouart de Groseillières.  Their travels took them into what is now Western Canada and they discovered that a huge area of what is now Canada drains into Hudson Bay.

They returned to France to try to claim this area for France and establish a fur trade monopoly over the whole area.  They met with refusal in France, quite possibly because they were Huguenots and then turned to England.  In 1670 the Hudson Bay Company was formed and given ownership of all the land draining into Hudson Bay.

It appears that some remnant of Protestantism remained right up to the English conquest in 1759.  In 1741 the Catholic clergy complained three times that the local authorities were still allowing Huguenot refugees to enter the colony.

After the conquest, the Catholic church continued to tighten its control over the French-speaking population.  The church ran all the schools, so when a family converted to Protestantism, their children could no longer attend school.  If the father was a labourer, he would probably lose his job.  If he was a businessman, he would lose his clientele.  Thus, most who did convert to Protestantism were forced to leave the province or assimilate to an English-speaking community in the province.  This allowed the Catholic church to claim that it was the sole defender of French language and culture.

Protestant mission work in Québec by missionaries from France and Switzerland began in the 1830’s.  It was a slow and difficult work, but they established a number of new Francophone congregations.  The Quiet Revolution of 1960 opened the door for a rapid growth of Francophone churches.

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